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  Islam through to the first Crusade

This is a summary chronological history of Islam through to the first Crusade.



545: Birth of Abdullah, the Holy Prophet's father.

571: Birth of the Holy Prophet. Year of the Elephant. Invasion of Makkah by Abraha the Viceroy of Yemen, his retreat.

577: The Holy Prophet visits Madina with his mother. Death of his mother.

580: Death of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of the Holy Prophet.

583: The Holy Prophet's journey to Syria in the company of his uncle Abu Talib. His meeting with the monk Bahira at Bisra who foretells of his prophethood.

586: The Holy Prophet participates in the war of Fijar.

591: The Holy Prophet becomes an active member of "Hilful Fudul", a league for the relief of the distressed.

594: The Holy Prophet becomes the Manager of the business of Lady Khadija, and leads her trade caravan to Syria and back.

595: The Holy Prophet marries Khadija. Seventh century

605: The Holy Prophet arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba.

610: The first revelation in the cave at Mt. Hira. The Holy Prophet is commissioned as the Messenger of God.

613: Declaration at Mt. Sara inviting the general public to Islam.

614: Invitation to the Hashimites to accept Islam.

615: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims leaves for Abyssinia.

616: Second Hijrah to Abysinnia.

617: Social boycott of the Hashimites and the Holy Prophet by the Quraish. The Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah.

619: Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Khadija. Year of sorrow.

620: Journey to Taif. Ascension to the heavens.

621: First pledge at Aqaba.

622: Second pledge at Aqaba. The Holy Prophet and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib.

623: Nakhla expedition.

624: Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Madina.

625: Battle of Uhud. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Madina. Second expedition of Badr.

626: Expedition of Banu Mustaliq.

627: Battle of the Trench. Expulsion of Banu Quraiza Jews.

628: Truce of Hudaibiya. Expedition to Khyber. The Holy Prophet addresses letters to various heads of states.

629: The Holy Prophet performs the pilgrimage at Makkah. Expedition to Muta (Romans).

630: Conquest of Makkah. Battles of Hunsin, Auras, and Taif.

631: Expedition to Tabuk. Year of Deputations.

632: Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah.

632: Death of the Holy Prophet. Election of Abu Bakr as the Caliph. Usamah leads expedition to Syria. Battles of Zu Qissa and Abraq. Battles of Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Musailima, the Liar.

633: Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq. Battles of Kazima, Mazar, Walaja, Ulleis, Hirah, Anbar, Ein at tamr, Daumatul Jandal and Firaz.
634: Battles of Basra, Damascus and Ajnadin. Death of Abu Bakr. Umar Farooq becomes the Caliph. Battles of Namaraq and Saqatia.

635: Battle of Bridge. Battle of Buwaib. Conquest of Damascus. Battle of Fahl.

636: Battle of Yermuk. Battle of Qadsiyia. Conquest of Madain.

637: Conquest of Syria. Fall of Jerusalem. Battle of Jalula.

638: Conquest of Jazirah.

639: Conquest of Khuizistan. Advance into Egypt.

640: Capture of the post of Caesaria in Syria. Conquest of Shustar and Jande Sabur in Persia. Battle of Babylon in Egypt.

641: Battle of Nihawand. Conquest Of Alexandria in Egypt.

642: Battle of Rayy in Persia. Conquest of Egypt. Foundation of Fustat.

643: Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Russia).

644: Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan. Martyrdom of Umar. Othman becomes the Caliph.

645: Campaigns in Fats.

646: Campaigns in Khurasan, Armeain and Asia Minor.

647: Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cypress.

648: Campaigns against the Byzantines.

651: Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.

652: Discontentment and disaffection against the rule of Othman.

656: Martyrdom of Othman. Ali becomes the Caliph. Battle of the Camel.

657: Ali shifts the capital from Madina to Kufa. Battle of Siffin. Arbitration proceedings at Daumaut ul Jandal.

658: Battle of Nahrawan.

659: Conquest of Egypt by Mu'awiyah.

660: Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Mu'awiyah.

661: Martyrdom of Ali. Accession of Hasan and his abdication. Mu'awiyah becomes the Caliph.

662: Khawarij revolts.

666: Raid of Sicily.

670: Advance in North Africa. Uqba b Nafe founds the town of Qairowan in Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul.

672: Capture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan.

674: The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.

677: Occupation of Sarnarkand and Tirmiz. Siege of Constantinople.

680: Death of Muawiyah. Accession of Yazid. Tragedy of Kerbala and martyrdom of Hussain.

682: In North Africa Uqba b Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Qairowan and withdraw to Burqa.

683: Death of Yazid. Accession of Mu'awiyah II.

684: Abdullah b Zubair declares himself aS the Caliph at Makkah. Marwan I becomes the Caliph' at Damascus. Battle of Marj Rahat.

685: Death of Marwan I. Abdul Malik becomes the Caliph at Damascus. Battle of Ain ul Wada.

686: Mukhtar declares himself as the Caliph at Kufa.

687: Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah b Zubair. Mukhtar killed.

691: Battle of Deir ul Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik.

692: The fall of Makkah. Death of Abdullah b Zubair. Abdul Malik becomes the sole Caliph.

695: Khawarij revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish.

700: Campaigns against the Berbers in North Africa.

702: Ashath's rebellion in Iraq, battle of Deir ul Jamira.

705: Death of Abdul Malik. Accession of Walid I as Caliph.

711: Conquest of Spain, Sind and Transoxiana.

712: The Muslims advance in Spain, Sind and Transoxiana.

713: Conquest of Multan.

715: Death of Walid I. Accession of Sulaiman.

716: Invasion of Constantinople.

717: Death of Sulaiman. Accession of Umar b Abdul Aziz.

720: Death of Umar b Abdul Aziz. Accession of Yazid II.

724: Death of Yazid II. Accession of Hisham.

725: The Muslims occupy Nimes in France.

732: The battle of Tours in France.

(The Frank’s victory begins the process to drive the Muslims out of Europe.)

737: The Muslims meet reverse at Avignon in France.

740: Shia revolt under Zaid b Ali. Berber revolt in North Africa. Battle of the Nobles.

741: Battle of Bagdoura in North Africa.

742: The Muslim rule restored in Qiarowan.

743: Death of Hisham. Accession of Walid II. Shia revolt in Khurasan under Yahya b Zaid.

744: Deposition of Walid I1. Accession of Yazid II1 and his death. Accession of Ibrahim and his overthrow. Battle of Ain al Jurr. Accession of Marwan II.
745: Kufa and Mosul occupied by the Khawarjites.

746: Battle of Rupar Thutha, Kufa and Mosul occupied by Marwan II.

747: Revolt of Abu Muslim in Khurasan.

748: Battle of Rayy.

749: Battles of lsfahan and Nihawand. Capture of Kufa by the Abbasids. As Saffah becomes the Abbasid Caliph at Kufa.

750: Battle of Zab. Fall of Damascus. End of the Umayyads.

751: Conquest of Wasit by the Abbasid. Murder of the Minister Abu Salama.

754: Death of As Saffah. Accession of Mansur as the Caliph.

755: Revolt of Abdullah b Ali. MUrder of Abu Muslim. Sunbadh revolt in Khurasan.

756: Abdul Rahman founds the Umayyad state in Spain.

762: Shia revolt under Muhammad (Nafs uz Zakia) and Ibrahim.

763: Foundation of Baghdad. Defeat of the Abbasids in Spain.

767: Khariji state set up by Ibn Madrar at Sijilmasa. Ustad Sees revolt in Khurasan.

772: Battle of Janbi in North Africa. Rustamid. state set up in Morocco.

775: Death or the Abbasid Caliph Mansur, Accession of Mahdi.

777: Battle of Saragossa in Spain.

785: Death of the Caliph Mahdi. Accession of Hadi.

786: Death of Hadi. Accession of Harun ur Rashid.

788: Idrisid state set up in the Maghrib. Death of Abdul Rahman of Spain, and accession of Hisham.

792: Invasion of South France.
796: Death of Hisham in Spain; accession of al Hakam.

799: Suppression of the revolt of the Khazars. Ninth century.

800: The Aghlabid rule is established in North Africa.

803: Downfall of the Barmakids. Execution of Jafar Barmki.

805: Campaigns against the Byzantines. Capture of the islands of Rhodes and Cypress.

809: Death of Harun ur Rashid. Accession of Amin.

814: Civil war between Amin and Mamun. Amin killed and Mamun becomes the Caliph.

815: Shia revolt under Ibn Tuba Tabs.

816: Shia revolt in Makkah; Harsama quells the revolt. In Spain the Umayyads capture the island of Corsica.

817: Harsama killed.

818: The Umayyads of Spain capture the islands of Izira, Majorica, and Sardinia.

819: Mamun comes to Baghdad.

820: Tahir establishes the rule of the Tahirids in Khurasan.

822: Death of Al Hakam in Spain; accession of Abdul Rahman. II.

823: Death of Tahir in Khurasan. Accession of Talha and his deposition. Accession of Abdullah b Tahir.

827: Mamun declares the Mutazila creed as the state religion.

833: Death of Mamun. Accession of Mutasim.

836: Mutasim shifts the capital to Samarra.

837: Revolt of the Jats.

838: Revolt of Babek in Azarbaijan suppressed.

839: Revolt of Maziar in Tabaristan. The Muslims occupy South Italy. Capture of the city of Messina in Sicily.

842: Death of Mutasim, accession of Wasiq.

843: Revolts of the Arabs.

847: Death of Wasiq, accession of Mutawakkil.

850: Mutawakkil restores orthodoxy.

849: Death of the Tahirid ruler Abdullah b Tahir; accession of Tahir II.

852: Death of Abdur Rahman II of Spain;. accession of Muhammad I.

856: Umar b Abdul Aziz founds the Habbarid rule in Sind.

858: Mutawakkil founds the town of Jafariya.

860: Ahmad founds the Samanid rule in Transoxiana.

861: Murder of the Abbasid Caliph Mutawakkil; accession of Muntasir.

862: Muntasir poisoned to death; accession of Mutasin.

864: Zaidi state established in Tabaristan by Hasan b Zaid.

866: Mutasim flies from Samarra, his depostion and accession of Mutaaz.

867: Yaqub b Layth founds the Saffarid rule in Sistan.

868: Ahmad b Tulun founds the Tulunid rule in Egypt.

869: The Abbasid Caliph Mutaaz forced to abdicate, his death and accession of Muhtadi.

870: Turks revolt against Muhtadi, his death and accession of Mutamid.

873: Tahirid rule extinguished.

874: Zanj revolt in South Iraq. Death of the Samanid ruler Ahmad, accession of Nasr.

877: Death of Yaqubb Layth in Sistan, accession of Amr b Layth.

885: Death of Ahmad b Tulun in Egypt, accession of Khamar- wiyiah.

866: Death of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Munzir. Death of Abdullah b Umar the Habbari ruler of Sind.

888: Death of Munzir the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Abbullah.

891: The Qarmatian state established at Bahrain.

892: Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail.

894: The Rustamids become the vassals of Spain.

896: Death of the Tulunid ruler Khamarwiyiah; accession of Abul Asakir Jaish.

897: Assassination of Abul Asakir Jaish; accession of Abu Musa Harun.

898: Qarmatians sack Basra.

902: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; death of the Saffarid ruler Amr.

903: Assassination of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Said; accession of Abu Tahir.

905: Abdullah b Hamdan founds the Hamdanid rule in Mosul and Jazira. End of the Tulunid rule in Egypt.

907: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; accession of Muqtadir.

908: End of the Saffarid rule, annexation of their territories by the Samanids.

909: Ubaidullah overthrows the Aghlablds and founds the Fatimid rule in North Africa.

912: Death of the Umayyad Amir Abdullah in Spain, accession of Abdur Rahman III.

913: Assassination of the Samanid ruler Ahmad II, accession of Nasr II.

928: Mardawij b Ziyar founds the Ziyarid rule in Tabaristan.

929: Qarmatians sack Makkah and carry away the Black Stone from the Holy Kaaba. In Spain, Abdur Rahman III declares himself as the Caliph.

931: Deposition and restoration of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir. Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Tahir; accession of Abu Mansur.

932: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir; accession of Al Qahir.

934: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qahir; accession of Ar Radi. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Ubaidullah ; accession of Al Qaim.

935: Assassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardawij; accession of Washimgir. Death of Hamdanid ruler Abdullah b Hamdan accession of Nasir ud Daula.

936: By coup Ibn Raiq becomes the Amir ul Umara.

938: By another coup power at Baghdad is captured by Bajkam.

940: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Ar Radi, accession of Muttaqi.

941: Assassination of Bajkam, capture of power by Kurtakin.

942: Ibn Raiq recaptures power.

943: Al Baeidi captures power. The Abbasid Caliph Muttaqi is forced to seek refuge with the Hamdanids. Sail ud Daula captures power at Baghdad and the Caliph returns to' Baghdad. Power is captured by Tuzun and Sail ud Daula retires' to Mosul. Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr II, accession of Nuh.

944: Muttaqi is blinded and deposed, accession of Mustakafi.

945: Death of Tuzun. Shirzad becomes Amir ul Umra. The Buwayhids capture power. Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Mustakafi.

946: Death of the Fatimid Caliph A1 Qaim. accession of Mansur. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Muhammad b Tughj, accession of Abul' Qasim Ungur.

951: The Qarnaatiana restore the Black Stone to the Holy Kaaba.

954: Death of the Sasanid ruler Nuh, accession of Abdul Malik.

961: Death of the Samanid ruler Abdul Malik, accession of Manauf. Alptgin founds the rule of the Ghazanavids. Death of the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Rahman III in Spain; accession of Hakam. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Ungur accession of Abul Hasan Ali.

965: Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Mansur; accession of Hasan Azam. Assassination of the Ikhshid ruler Abul Hasan Ali; power captured by Malik Kafur.

967: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud Daula, accession of Bakhtiar. Death of the Hamdanid ruler Sail ud Daula.

968: Byzantines occupy Aleppo. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Malik Kafur; accession of Abul Fawaris.

969: The Fatimids conquer Egypt.

972: Buluggin b Ziri founds the rule of the Zirids Algeria.

973: Shia Sunni disturbances in Baghdad; power captured in Baghdad by the Turkish General Subuktgin.

974: Abdication of the Abbasid Caliph Al Muttih; accession of At Taii.

975: Death of the Turk General Subuktgin. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Muizz.

976: The Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula recaptures power with the help of his cousin Azud ud Daula. Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur, accession of Nuh II. In Spain death of the Umayyad Caliph Hakam, accession of Hisham II.

978: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula, power captured by Azud ud Daula. The Hamdanids overthrown by the Buwayhids.

979: Subkutgin becomes the Amir of Ghazni.

981: End of the Qarmatian rule at Bahrain.

982: Death of the- Buwayhid Sultan Azud ud Daula; accession of Samsara ud Daula.

984: Death of the Zirid ruler Buluggin, accession of Mansur.

986: The Buwyhid Sultan Samsara ud Daula overthrown by Sharaf ud Daula.

989: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Sharaf ud Daula, accession of Baha ud Daula.

991: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph At Taii, accession of Al Qadir.

996: Death of the Zirid ruler Mansur, accession of Nasir ud Daula Badis.

997: Death of the Samanid ruler Nuh II, accession of Mansur II.

998: Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur II, accession of Abdul Malik II. Mahmud becomes the Amir of Ghazni.

999: End of the Samanids.

1001: Mahmud Ghazanavi defeats the Hindu Shahis.

1004: Mahmud captures Bhatiya.

1005: Mahmud captures Multan and Ghur.

1008: Mahmud defeats the Rajput confederacy.

1010: Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. accession of Muhammad.

1011: In Spain Muhammad is overthrown by Sulaiman.

1012: In Spain power is captured by Bani Hamud. Death of the Buwayhid Baha ud Daula, accession of Sultan ud Daula.

1016: Death of the Zirrid ruler Nasir ud Daula Badis; accession of Al Muizz.

1018: In Spain power is captured by Abdul Rahman IV.

1019: Conquest of the Punjab by Mahmud Ghazanavi.

1020: The Buwayhid Sultan ud Daula is Overthrown by Musharaf ud Daula, Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Hakim, accession of Al Zahir.

1024: In Spain assassination of Abdul Rahman IV, accession of Mustafi.

1025: Death of the Buwayhid Mushgraf ud Daula, accession of Jalal ud Daula.

1029: In Spain death of Mustaft, accession of Hisham III.

1030: Death of Mahmud Ghazanavi.

1031: In Spain deposition of Hisharn III, and end of the Umayyad rule. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qadir, accession of Al Qaim.

1036: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Zahir, accession of Mustansir. Tughril Beg is crowned as the king of the Seljuks.

1040: Battle of Dandanqan, the Seljuks defeat the Ghazanavids. Deposition of Masud the Ghazanavid Sultan, accession of Muhammad. Al Moravids come to power in North Africa.

1041: The Ghazanavid Sultan Muhammad is overthrown by Maudud.

1044: Death of the Buwayhid Jalal ud Daula, accession of Abu Kalijar.

1046: Basasiri captures power in Baghdad.

1047: The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the Fatimid and transfer allegiance to-the Abbasids.

1048: Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar, accession of Malik ur Rahim.

1050: Yusuf b Tashfin comes to power .in the Maghrib.

1055: Tughril Beg overthrows the Buwayhids.

1057: Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al Qaim and offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph.

1059: Tughril Beg recaptures power in Baghdad, al Qaim is restored as the Caliph.

1060: Ibrahim becomes the Sultan of Ghazni. Yusuf b Tashfin founds the city of Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital Ashir and establish their capital at Bougie.

1062: Death of the Zirid ruler Al Muizz, accession of Tamin.

1063: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg; accession of Alp Arsalan.

1071: Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine emperor taken captive by the Seljuks.

1073: Death of Alp Arsalan, accession of Malik Shah.

1077: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qaim, accession of Al Muqtadi.

1082: The A1 Moravids conquer Algeria.

1086: Battle of Zallakha. The Al Moravids defeat the Christians in Spain. Death of the Rum Sejuk Sultan Sulaiman, accession of Kilij Arsalan.

1091: The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule.

1092: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah, accession of Mahmud.

1094: Death of Mahmud; accession of Barkiaruk. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Muqtadi, accession of Mustahzir.

1095: The first crusade.

1099: The crusaders capture Jerusalem.


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  All text copyright © 2005 Aaron Randall. All rights reserved.  Photos, unless otherwise credited, are the property of the auth, all rights reserved.  Originally posted February 24, 2004.  Revised: February 20, 2009.